Periodontal Disease

In the tissues of the oral cavity, disorders can occur that cause a lack of blood supply, as a result of which the state of the gums, palate – the entire oral cavity changes. Such a disease is called periodontal disease, and there are no inflammatory processes. The patient can detect the initial symptoms on his own, as the habitual state and appearance of the mucosa are violated:

  • Gums lose color saturation, tighten
  • The edge of the tissue at the root decreases, the root is exposed
  • When brushing your teeth bleeding gums
  • Sensitivity of tooth tissue is enhanced

The disease is prone to development against the background of general diseases of the body, including metabolic disorders, endocrine disruptions, problems with the cardiovascular system. Periodontal disease is not a very common disease. According to statistics, 3 to 10 out of 100 people suffer from it. The symptoms of the disease do not immediately become apparent, the process develops over the years, and is chronic. Depending on the degree of exposure of the roots of the teeth and an X-ray, the specialist determines the severity of the disease: mild, moderate, severe.

Why does the disease occur?

An absolute factor for the development of periodontal disease is a general decrease in body functions. In what cases are the most frequently observed signs of periodontal disease:

  • Dysfunction of the cardiovascular system: tachycardia, arrhythmia, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, hypertension
  • Trophic disorders of the nervous system
  • Metabolic malfunctions, including problems with the synthesis of protein, bone tissue, as well as osteoporosis
  • Avitaminosis
  • Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

These are the most common causes of periodontal disease. Among local factors, malocclusion is noted. A hereditary factor is considered carriage of macrophage monocyte cells that are capable of producing substances that dissolve bone tissue. There is a scientifically based opinion about the existence of special bacteria that affect the degeneration or destruction of bone tissue.

Clinical picture

Symptoms of periodontal disease can be obvious only with prolonged chronic course of the disease. In the early stages, they do not cause discomfort to a person and do not serve as a reason for contacting a specialist. The manifestation of a certain symptomatic picture depends on the stage of periodontal disease. At different stages of the disease progression, the patient experiences certain anxieties, which manifest themselves in the state of the oral cavity and are obvious to the dentist upon examination.


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